Posts Tagged With 'debugging'

Creating Python snaps

Written by Barry Warsaw in technology on Thu 02 April 2015. Tags: debugging, python, python3, ubuntu,


Snappy Ubuntu Core is a new edition of the Ubuntu you know and love, with some interesting new features, including atomic, transactional updates, and a much more lightweight application deployment story than traditional Debian/Ubuntu packaging. Much of this work grew out of our development of a mobile/touch based version of Ubuntu for phones and tablets, but now Ubuntu Core is available for clouds and devices.

I find the transactional nature of upgrades to be very interesting. While you still get a perfectly normal Ubuntu system, your root file system is read-only, so traditional apt-get based upgrades don't work. Instead, your system version is image based; today you are running image 231 and tomorrow a new image is released to get you to 232. When you upgrade to the new image, you get all the system changes. We support both full and delta upgrades (the latter which reduces bandwidth), and even phased updates so that we can roll out new upgrades and quickly pull them from the server side if we notice a problem. Snappy devices even support rolling back upgrades on a single device, by using a dual-partition root file system. Phones generally don't support this due to lack of available space on the device.

Of course, the other part really interesting thing about Snappy is the lightweight, flexible approach to deploying applications. I still remember my early days learning how to package software for Debian and Ubuntu, and now that I'm both an Ubuntu Core Developer and Debian Developer, I understand pretty well how to properly package things. There's still plenty of black art involved, even for relatively easy upstream packages such as distutils/setuptools-based Python packages available on the Cheeseshop (er, PyPI). The Snappy approach on Ubuntu Core is much more lightweight and easy, and …

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Charming Snakes and Shaving Yaks

Written by Barry Warsaw in technology on Mon 28 March 2011. Tags: debugging, python, ubuntu,

For the last couple of days I've been debugging a fun problem in the Ubuntu tool called Jockey. Jockey is a tool for managing device drivers on Ubuntu. It actually contains both a command-line and a graphical front-end, and a dbus backend service that does all the work (with proper authentication, since it modifies your system). None of that is terribly relevant to the problem, although the dbus bit will come back to haunt us later.

What is important is that Jockey is a Python application, written using many Python modules interfacing to low-level tools such as apt and dbus. The original bug report was mighty confusing. Aside from not being reproducible by myself and others, the actual exception made no fricken sense! Basically, it was code like this that was throwing a TypeError:

_actions = []
# _actions gets appended to at various times and later...
for item in _actions[:]:
    # do something

Everyone who reported the problem said the TypeError was getting thrown on the for-statement line. The exception message indicated that Python was getting some object that it was trying to convert to an integer, but was failing. How could you possible get that exception when either making a copy of a list or iterating over that copy? Was the list corrupted? Was it not actually a list but some list-like object that was somehow returning non-integers for its min and max indexes?

To make matters worse, this little code snippet was in Python's standard library, in the subprocess module. A quick search of Python's bug database did reveal some recent threads about changes here, made to ensure that popen objects got properly cleaned up by the garbage collector if they weren't cleaned up explicitly by the program. Note that we're using Python 2.7 here, and after some reading …

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